Starting with the organization briefly described in the foregoing pages, the passage of time and the extension of governmental activities pointed to the necessity of effecting a number of changes in the routine of public business. Both as to methods and as to personnel experience served as a guide to a number of adjustments and reforms which, in the aggregate, have brought the administrative system to the highest state of efficiency attained since the annexation.
The actual development of administrative work in Korea, in the more important branches, is shown in the following table:
PUBLIC EXPENDITURES ON VARIOUS OBJECTS (In yen. One yen=50 cents. U. S.)
|Courts and Prisons||2,,372,951||6,816,139||187|
roads, bridges, railroads
|Research: chiefly relating to industry,|
and natural resources.
Allowing for certain minor changes in administrative organization effected between the years 1910 and 1919, Korea was, in effect, governed for the ten years following annexation under the provisions of the Organic Regulations of the Government-General, which were promulgated on September 30, 1910, and went into effect on the following day.
On August 19, 1919, an Imperial Ordinance was promulgated on the subject of the reorganization of the Government-General of Korea; and was put in force the same day. The general purpose of the reorganization is set forth in the following quotation from the Rescript:
We are persuaded that the state of development now reached in Korea calls for certain reforms in the administrative organization of the GovernmentGeneral; and We hereby issue our Imperial command that such reforms be put into operation. The measures thus taken are solely designed to facilitate the working of administration and to secure enlightened and efficient government, in pursuance of Our settled policy, and for the purpose of meeting the altered needs of the country.
The instrument through which the Imperial Rescript was to be made effective was a revised "Organic Regulations of the Government-General" published at the same time as the Rescript. The revised Regulations embodied all amendments made from time to time since the issue of the original Regulations, and such additions of new matter as were needed to give effect to the Rescript.
The organization of Government in Korea, as fixed by the Regulations of 1919 is described in the following pages. The administration of government, that is to say the work performed by the organization, is described in the chapters following this.
At the head of the Government is the Governor-General, appointed by the Emperor of Japan, and directly responsible to him for the administration of government in Korea. Until 1919 it was obligatory that the Governor-General be selected from the Japanese military establishment. The new Regulations abolished this restriction, and made civil officials also eligible for the appointment.
Next in rank is the Vice Governor-General, sometimes described as Director of Civil Administration. His duties resemble those performed by the Secretary General in Java, and by the Colonial Secretary of a British Crown Colony. He is the Governor-General's right-hand man, and is responsible for all administrative decisions, unless or until they require the formal sanction of the Governor-General.
The Governor-General conducts the administration of Korea through the agency of two groups of administrative organs, one of which constitutes the Government-General, the other being designated as Affiliated Offices of the Government-General.