알아서는 안 되는 일제시대의 진실

학교에서 배우지 않는 일제강점기의 실상

[III-3] SUMMARY  [THE NEW KOREA]

Government
On October 30, 1910, the Organic Regulations of the Government-General of Chosen ( Korea) were promulgated by a Japanese Imperial Ordinance. The Regulations established a Secretariat, and five Departments, to which were assigned, respectively, General Affairs, Home Affairs, Finance, Justice, and Agriculture, Commerce and Industry. For the purpose of carrying on the government a large staff of Japanese officials was installed. As few of these officials had any close knowledge of local conditions or of the Korean language, the actual position was that although a complete administrative machine was set in motion, it was realised by the authorities that from the experience of its employment the necessity would become apparent of many changes designed to make the system increasingly suitable to the particular circumstances of the country.

From year to year various reforms were introduced; but it was not until 1919 that, following the outbreak and suppression of the Independence Movement, and the appointment of Admiral Baron Saito to the Governor-Generalship, a matured plan of general reorganization was undertaken under the authority, of an Imperial Rescript.

The statement of the matters to be effected by the new plans shows that the authorities recognized clearly the character of the defects which had become apparent during the nine years which had elapsed since the original Organic Regulations had been put in force. The official list of the purposes to which the new measures were addressed was as follows:

1. Non-discrimination between Japanese and Korean officials.
2. Simplification of laws and regulations.
3. Prompt transaction of state business.
4. Decentralization policy.
5. Improvement in local organization.
6. Respect for native culture and customs.
7. Freedom of speech, meeting, and press.
8. Spread of education and development of industry.
9. Re-organization of the police system.
10. Enlargement of medical and sanitary agencies.
11. Guidance of the people.
12. Advancement of men of talent.
13. Friendly feeling between Japanese and Koreans.

In a Proclamation to the People of Chosen, issued by Governor-General Saito on September 10, 1919, His Excellency made the following declaration:

  I am determined to superintend officials under my control and encourage them to put forth greater efforts to act in a fairer and juster way, and promote the facilities of the people and the unhindered attainment of the people's desires by dispensing with all formalities. Full consideration will be given to the appointment and treatment of Koreans so as to secure the right men for the right places, and what in Korean institutions and old customs is worthy of adoption will be adopted as a means of government. I also hope to introduce reform in the different branches of administrative activity, and enforce local self-government at the proper opportunity, and thereby ensure stability for the people and enhance their general welfare. It is most desirable that the government and the governed throw open their hearts and minds to each other and combine their efforts to advance civilization in Chosen, solidify its foundations of enlightened government, and thus answer His Majesty's benevolent solicitude. If anybody is found guilty of unwarrantably refractory language or action, of misleading the popular mind, and of impeding the maintenance of public peace, he will meet with relentless justice. May it be that the people at large will place reliance on all this.

The reader of the administrative chapters in the present volume will see that GovernorGeneral Saito has been as good as his word. He has kept his promise to rule with justice, firmness, and tolerance, and to keep in view the cultural and economic interests of the Korean people.

Among the more important of his administrative measures are to be noted the abolition of the gendarmerie, the abolition of the old Korean custom of flogging convicted offenders, the appointment of an increasing number of Koreans to high posts in the Government, the appointment or election of advisory councils, largely composed of Koreans, the delegation of a great deal of local administration to local authorities, thus contributing to the education of the people in local self-government, the expenditure of large funds in aid and in encouragement of agriculture, industry, and commerce, the notable increase in the expenditure on education, culminating in the founding of a University at which Koreans will be able to secure in Korea an education as thorough as they would be able to get in Japan proper.

Some of the foregoing points, and others bearing upon the general progress of the country, can be established statistically, as will be seen from the following table:
BUDGET ESTIMATES OF EXPENDITURES BY THE GOVERNMENT-GENERAL ON VARIOUS SPECIFIED OBJECTS (In thousands of yen. 1 yen = 50 cents U. S.)
1918*1921†Increase
Local administration4,44010,133128%
Medical and Sanitary7301,883157%
Education2,1966,100180%
Encouragement of industry3,5738,798146%
Public Works7,34115.329108%

BUDGET ESTIMATES FOR VARIOUS CLASSES OF EXPENDITURE
BY PROVINCIAL AND OTHER PUBLIC BODIES
(In thousands of yen)

1918 *1921†Increase
Medical and Sanitary7821,723120%
Education4,89719,382287%
Encouragement of industry2,1395,411153%
Public Works.3,21011,953272%
Social and Charitable19438397%
*The year before Governor-General Saito's arrival.
†The second year after his arrival.

The following explanations may be given of the terms used in the foregoing tables: "Local Administration" means in this connection the local administrative offices of the Government-General, situated in each province, county, and municipality; "Public Works" includes roadmaking, bridge-building, and the construction and repair of public buildings; "Encouragement of Industry" covers items such as subsidies and expert services to various agricultural and manufacturing enterprises. The term "Provincial and Other Public Bodies" refers to administrative units organized in provinces, districts, municipalities, and villages for dealing with education, sanitation, industrial encouragement, civil engineering, social and charitable undertakings in various localities, and with general administrative services in villages. The increases in expenditure on education and on public works register the Practical character of Governor-General Saito's cultural policy; and it is to be noted that these increases were brought about within two years of Viscount Saito's assumption of office.

메인 콘텐츠
통계로 보는 일제시대 옛날사진 모음 친일파를 위한 변명 [목차](전문 게재) 대한민국 이야기 [목차](전문 게재) 동아일보 한국어로 번역된 일본 중학교 역사교과서 대한제국의 황실재정 독도 바로 알기 화해를 위해서_박유하(일부발췌) 근대사 연표 경향신문